Lecture Handout
  Introduction to Programming
  Lecture No. 36
  Reading Material
  Deitel & Deitel - C++ How to Program    Chapter. 11
  11.6, 11.7
  37)   Stream Manipulations 
  38)   Manipulators
  39)   Non Parameterized Manipulators
  40)   Parameterized Manipulators
  41)   Format State Slags
  42)   Formatting Manipulation
  43)   Showing the Base
  44)   Scientific representation

  45)   Exercise
  Stream Manipulations
  After having a thorough look into the properties and object definition of I/O streams, we
  will discuss their manipulations. Here, there is need of some header files to include in our
  program the way, cin and cout are used. We include iostream.h and fstream.h while using
  file manipulations. In case of manipulation of the I/O streams, the header file with the
  name of   iomanip.h is included. It is required to be included whenever there is need of
  employing manipulators.  
  As discussed earlier, we can determine the state of a stream. The states of the stream can
  be determined. For example, in case of cin, we can check where the end of file comes.   
  For state- checking, these stream objects have set of flags inside them. These flags can be
  considered as an integer or long integer. The bit position of these integers specifies some
  specific state. There is a bit for the end of file to test. It can be written as under:
  cin.eof() ;
  It will return the state of end of file. The bit will be set if the file comes to an end.
  Similarly, there is a   fail bit. This bit determines whether an operation has failed or not.
  For example, an operation could be failed due to a formatting error. The statement
  cin.fail; will return the value of the fail bit. As this statement returns a value, we can use
  it in an ‘if statement’ and can recover the error. Then there is a bad bit. This bit states that
  data has lost. The presence of this bit means that some data has lost during I/O operation.
  So we can check it in the following manner. 
  It can be used in parentheses as a function call that will allow us to check whether the
  operation failed or successful. Similarly we can also check for’   good’, that is a bit
  showing that everything is good. This bit will be set if fail and bad bits are not set. We
  can check this bit as   cin.good ; and can find out whether the input operation was
  successful. If some bit like bad has been set, there should also be a mechanism to clear it.
  For this, we have 
  cin.clear() ; 
  as a member function for these objects. This will reset the bits to their normal good state.
  This is a part of checking input stream. 
  Whenever carrying out some formatting, we will want that the streams can manipulate
  and a number should be displayed in a particular format. We have stream manipulators
  for doing this. The manipulators are like something that can be inserted into stream,
  effecting a change in the behavior. For example, if we have a floating point number, say
  pi (л), and  have written it as  float pi = 3.1415926 ;  Mow there is need of  printing the
  value of pi up to two decimal places i.e. 3.14 . This is a formatting functionality. For this,
  we have a manipulator that tells about width and number of decimal points of a number
  being printed. Some manipulators are parameter less. We simply use the name of the
  manipulator that works. For example, we have been using   endl, which is actually a
  manipulator, not data. When we write   cout << endl ; a new line is output besides
  flushing the buffer. Actually, it manipulates the output stream. Similarly   flush was a
  manipulator for which we could write   cout << flush that means flushing the output
  buffer. So it manipulates the output. 
  A second type of manipulators takes some argument. It can be described with the help of
  an example. Suppose we want to print the value of pi up to two decimal places. For this
  purpose, there should be some method so that we can provide the number i.e. two (2) up
  to which we want the decimal places. This is sent as a parameter in the manipulators.
  Thus we have the parameterized manipulators. 
  Let’s have a look on what streams do for us. We know that streams are like ordered
  sequence of bytes and connect two things i.e., a source and a destination. In the middle,
  the stream does some conversion. So it may take some binary representation of some
  information and convert it into human readable characters. It may also take characters
  and convert them into an internal representation of data. With in the conversion of data,
  we can do some other things. For example, you might have seen that if a system prints
  computerized cheques, it puts some special characters with the numbers. If there is a
  cheque for four thousand rupees, this amount would be written on it as ****4000.00. The
  idea of printing * before the amount is that no body could insert some number before the
  actual amount to change it. As we don’t want that somebody has increased the amount on
  the cheque from Rs 4000 to Rs 14000.The printing of * before the amount is a
  manipulation that we can do with input or output objects. We can also tell the width for a
  number to be printed. So there are many conversions that we can do. We can use fill
  characters like * as mentioned in the example of cheque printing. To accomplish all these
  tasks, there are different methods. So it becomes a little confusing that the same work is
  being done through 2-3 different methods. Some are inline manipulators like endl.  We
  can use it with << and write inline as cout << endl ; The same work could be done with
  the   flush method. We could also write   cout.flush ; Thus it is confusing that there is an
  inline manipulator and a function for the same work.   
  Non-Parameterized Manipulators
  Let’s start with simple manipulators. We have been dealing with numbers like integers,
  floats etc for input and out put. We know that our number representations are associated
  with some base. In daily life, the numbers of base 10 are used in arithmetic. When we see
  4000 written on a cheque, we understand that it is four thousands written in the decimal
  number system (base 10). But in the computer world, many systems are used for number
  representation that includes binary (base 2), octal (base 8), decimal (base 10) and
  hexadecimal (base 16) systems.  A simple justification for the use of these different
  systems is that computers internally run on bits and bytes. A byte consists of eight bits.
  Now if we look at the values that can be in eight bits. 256 values (from 0 to 255 ) can be
  stored in eight bits. Now consider four bits and think what is the highest number that we
  can store in four bits. We know that the highest value in a particular number of bits can
  be determined by the formula 2n - 1 (where n is the number of bits). So the highest value
  that can be stored in four bits will be 24 - 1 i.e. 15. Thus the highest value, we can store in
  four bits is 15 but the number of different values that can be stored will be 2n i.e. 16
  including zero. Thus we see that while taking half of a byte i.e. four bits, 16 (which is the
  base of hexadecimal system) different numbers can be stored in these four bits. It means
  that there is some relationship between the numbers that have a base of some power of
  two. So they can easily be manipulated as bit format. Thus four bits are hex. What about
  eight (octal)? If we have three bits, then it is 23 = 8, which is the base of octal system.
  Thus, we can use three bits for octal arithmetic. 
  We can use manipulators to convert these numbers from one base to the other. The
  manipulators used for this purpose, can be used with   cin and   cout. These are non-
  parameterized manipulators. So if we say the things like   int i = 10 ;  Here   i   has the
  decimal value 10. We write cout << i ; and 10 is being displayed on the screen. If we
  want to display it in octal form, we can use a manipulator here. If we write
  cout << oct << i ; 
  it will display the octal value of  i (10) which is 12. This manipulator converts the
  decimal number into an octal number before displaying it. So the octal representation of
  10 which is 12, will be displayed on the screen. Similarly if we write 
  cout << hex << i ;  
  Here hex stands for the hexadecimal.   hex is the manipulator that goes into the out put
  stream before   i and manipulates the stream by converting the decimal number into a
  hexadecimal number. As a result, the hexadecimal value of 10 is displayed on the screen.
  If we have a number in octal or hexadecimal system , it can be converted into a decimal
  number by putting the dec manipulator in the stream like 
  cout << dec << i ; 
  These (oct, hex and dec) are very simple inline manipulators without any argument.
  There is also a manipulator for white space. The white space has a special meaning. It is a
  delimiter that separates two numbers (or words). In cin and cout, the white space acts as a
  delimiter. If we want that it should not act as a delimiter, it can used as a ws manipulator.
  This manipulators skips white space. This manipulator takes no argument. This   ws
  manipulator is sometime useful but not all the times. The following table shows the non-
  parameterized manipulators and their description. 
  Manipulator   Domain   Effect
  dec   In / Out   Use decimal conversion base
  hex   In / Out   Use hexadecimal conversion base
  oct   In / Out   Use octal conversion base
  endl   Output   Inserts a new line and flush the stream
  ends   Output   Terminate a string with NULL
  flush   Output   Flush the stream
  ws   Input   Skip leading whitespace for the next
  string extraction only
  The base becomes important while doing programming of scientific programs. We may
  want that there is the hexadecimal presentation of a number. We have discussed the
  justification of using hexadecimal or octal numbers, which is that they match with bits.
  Here is another justification for it. Nowadays, computers are just like a box with a button
  in front of them. A reset button is also included with the main power button. While seeing
  the pictures or in actual Miniframe and mainframe computers, you will notice that there
  is a row of switches in front of them. So there are many switches in front of these
  computers that we manipulate. These switches are normally setting directly the values of
  registers inside the computer. So you can set the value of register as 101011 etc by
  switching on and off the switches. We can do that to start a computer or signaling
  something to computer and so on. There are a lot of switches in front of those computers
  ranging between 8 to 16. You have to simply remember what is the value to start the
  computer. Similarly, it will require the reading the combinations of switches from the
  paper to turn on the computer. This combination tells you which switch should be on and
  which should be off. As a human being instead of  remembering the whole pattern like
  10110000111 etc, it could be easy to remember it as 7FF. Here we are dealing with HEX
  numbers. For the digit 7, we need four bits. In other words,  there is need to set four
  switches. The pattern of 7 is 0111. So we set 7 with this combination. For F, all the four
  bits should be on as 1111 and so on. Thinking octal and hexadecimals straight away maps
  to the bits. It takes a little bit of practice to effectively map on the switches. On the other
  hand, decimal does not map to those bits. What will be its octal number in case of
  decimal number 52.? You have to calculate this. What is the binary representation of 52?
  Again you have to calculate. There are a lot of things which you have to calculate. On the
  hand, if we say 7ABC in case of HEX, we are mapping the number straight away on four
  bits. In octal system, we map the number on three bits. A is ten so it will be 1010 so you
  can quickly set the switches. It may not be relevant today. But when you are working
  with big computers, it will become quite relevant. There are many times when we have to
  manipulate binary data using mechanical device while thinking in hexadecimal and octal
  terms. In the language, you have the facility to set the base. You can use setbase(), hex,
  oct, dec and setf. There are many ways of doing the same thing. Programmers write these
  languages. Therefore they make this facility available in the language as built in. 
  Parameterized Manipulators
  Suppose we want to print the number 10 within a particular width. Normally the numbers
  are written right justified.  In case of no action on our part, cout displays a number left
  justified and in the space required by the number. If we want that all numbers should be
  displayed within the same particular width, then the space for the larger number has to be
  used. Let’s say this number is of four digits. Now we want that there should be such a
  manipulator in the output that prints every number in a space of four digits. We have a
  manipulator setw (a short for set width), it takes as an argument the width in number of
  spaces. So to print our numbers in four spaces we write
  cout << setw(4) << number ;
  When printed, this number gets a space of four digits. And this will be printed in that
  space with right justification. By employing this mechanism, we can print values in a
  column (one value below the other) very neat and clean.   
  Now in the example of printing a cheque, we want that the empty space should be filled
  with some character. This is required to stop somebody to manipulate the printed figure.
  To fill the empty space, there is need of manipulator   setfill. We can write this
  manipulator with cout as the following 
  cout << setfill (character) ;
  where the   character is a single character written in single quotes. Usually, in cheque
  printing, the character * is used to fill the empty spaces. We can use any character for
  example, 0 or x. The filling character has significance only if we have used   setw
  manipulator.  Suppose, we are going to print a cheque with amount in 10 spaces.  If the
  amount is not of 10 digits, the empty space will be filled with *. Thus the usage of setfill
  is there where we use   setw for printing a number in a specific width. So if we want to
  print an amount in 10 spaces and want to fill the empty spaces with *, it can be written as
  cout << setfill(*) << setw(10) << amount ; 
  Thus the manipulators can also be of cascading nature. The stream insertion operator
  (<<) is overloaded and every overload of it returns a reference to the cout object itself.
  This means that while working from left to right, first the fill character will be set
  returning a reference to   cout . Later, its width will be set to 10 character and return a
  reference to   cout again. Finally, the amount will be displayed in the required format.
  Thus, we have manipulated the stream in two ways. Example of a pipe with two bends
  can help it understand further. Now whatever figure goes into it, its width and the fill
  character is set and things are displayed in the space of 10 characters. If we want to print
  an amount of Rs 4000 on the cheque, it will be printed on the cheque as ******4000.
  Thus, we have two manipulators, setw and setfill which are used with cout.
  Let’s further discuss the same example of cheque. In real world, if we look at a computer
  printed cheque , the amount is printed with a decimal point like 4000.00 even if there is
  no digit after decimal point. We never see any amount like 4000.123, as all the currencies
  have two- digit fractional part. Thus, we examine that the fractional part has been
  restricted to two decimal places. The decimal digits can be restricted to any number. We
  have a manipulator for this purpose. The manipulator used for this purpose is
  setprecision. This is a parameterized manipulator. It takes an integer number as an
  argument and restrict the precision to that number. If we write 
  cout << setprecision (2) << float number ; 
  The above statement will display the given float number with two decimal places. If we
  have the value of pi stored in a variable, say pi, of type float with a value of 3.1415926
  and want to print this value with two decimal places. Here, manipulator setprecision can
  be used. It can be written as under.
  cout << setprecision (2) << pi ; 
  This will print the value of pi with two decimal places.
  Now think about it and write on the discussion board that whether the value of pi is
  rounded or truncated when we print it with setprecision manipulator. What will be the
  value of pi with five decimal places and with four decimal places? Will the last digit be
  rounded or the remaining numbers will be truncated? 
  At this point, we may come across some confusion. We have learned the inline
  manipulators that are parameter less. For these, we simply write   cout << hex <<
  number; which displays the number in hexadecimal form. There is also a parameterized
  manipulator that performs the same task. This manipulator is setbase. It takes the base of
  the system (base, to which we want to format the number) as an argument. Instead of
  using   oct, dec and   hex manipulators, we can use the   setbase manipulator with the
  respective base as an argument. So instead of writing 
  cout << oct << number ; 
  we can write 
  cout << setbase (8) << number ;
  The above two statements are equivalent in the way for having the same results. It is a
  matter of style used by one of these manipulators. We can use either one of these,
  producing a similar effect. The cout << setbase(8) means the next number will be printed
  in the base 8. Similarly   cout << setbase(16) means the next number will be printed in
  hexadecimal (base 16) form. Here a point to note is that   setbase (0) is the same as
  Following is the table, in which the parameterized manipulators with their effect are
  Manipulator   Domain   Effect
  resetioflags(long   In / Out   Clear flags specified in f
  setbase (int b)   In / Out   Set numeric conversion base to b (b may be 0, 8, 10 or
  setfill (int c)   Output   Set fill character to c
  setiosflags(long f) In / Out   St flags specified in f
  setprecision (int   Output   Set floating point precision to p
  setw (int w)   Output   Set field width to w
  Format State Flags
  We have discussed that there are flags with the stream objects. This set of flags is used to
  determine the state of the stream. The set includes good, fail, eof etc that tells the state of
  the stream. There is also another set of flags comprising the ones for input/output system
  (ios). We can use setioflag, and give it as an argument a long number. Different bit values
  are set in this number and the flags are set according to this. These flags are known as
  format state flags and are shown in the following table. These flags can be controlled by
  the flags, setf and unsetf member functions.  
  Format state flag   Description
  ios::skipws   Skip whitespace character on an input stream.
  ios::left   Left justify output in a field, padding characters appear to the right
  if necessary.
  ios::right   Right justify output in a field, padding characters appear to the left
  if necessary.
  ios::internal   Indicate that a number’s sign should be left justified in a field and
  a number’s magnitude should be right justified in that same field
  (i.e. padding characters appear between the sign and the number).
  ios::dec   Specify that integers should be treated as decimal (base 10) values.
  ios::oct   Specify that integers should be treated as octal (base 8) values.
  ios::hex   Specify that integers should be treated as hexadecimal (base 16)
  ios::showbase   Specify that the base of a number is to be output ahead of the
  number(a leading 0 for octals, a leading 0x or 0X for
  ios::showpoint   Specify that floating-point numbers should be output with a
  decimal point. This is normally used with ios::fixed.
  ios::uppercase   Specify that uppercase letters (i.e X and A through F) should be
  used in the hexadecimal integers and the uppercase E in scientific
  ios::showpos   Specify that positive and negative numbers should be preceded by
  a + or - sign, respectively.
  ios::scientific   Specify output of a floating-point value in scientific notation.
  ios::fixed   Specify output of a floating-point value in fixed point notation
  with a specific number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
  Let’s talk about more complicated things. We discussed a parameterized manipulator
  setw that sets the width to print in the output. There is an alternative for it i.e. the member
  function, called ‘width()’. This function also takes the same parameter and an integer, in
  which width the things are to display or read. This function applies to both input and
  output stream. For this, we write cin.width (7). This will create a format field of the width
  of 7 characters for an input. Now we write   cout.width (10)   ; this will set the width of
  output field to 10. With it, the next number to be printed will be printed in 10 spaces.
  Thus setw, inline manipulator has the alternative function cin.width and cout.width with
  single argument. 
  It equally applies to the setprecision. This is the parameterized, inline- manipulator that
  sets the places after the decimal point. There is a member function as well in these
  objects that is   precision. The   setprecision is an inline manipulator, used along with
  stream insertion (<<). If we want to do the same thing with a function call, 
  cout.precision(2) is written. It has the same effect as that of   cout << setprecision (2).
  Thus we have different ways of doing things.
  We have used   setfill manipulator. Here is another member- function i.e.   cout.fill. The
  behavior of this function is exactly the same. We simply write cout.fill(‘*’) ;  identical to 
  cout << setfill(‘*’). The filling character is mostly used whenever we use financial
  transactions but not necessarily. We can also use zero to fill the space. 
  So fill and setfill, width and setw, precision and setprecision and almost for every inline
  manipulator, there are member functions that can be called with these streams. 
  The member functions are defined in iostream.h. However, the manipulators are defined
  in iomanip.h. Normally we have been including iostream.h in our programs to utilize the
  member functions easily. But inclusion of a header file ‘iomanip.h file is must for the use
  of  manipulators. 
  We should keep in mind that when we can write inline manipulators in the following
  cout << setw (7) << i ; 
  And in the next line we write 
  cout << j ;
  Here the   setw manipulator will apply to   i only and not after that to   j. This means that
  inline manipulators apply only to the very next piece of data i.e. output. It does not apply
  to subsequent output operations. 
  Formatting Manipulation
  We can adjust the output to left side, right side or in the center. For this purpose, we have
  a member function of the object whose syntax is as under:
  cout.setf(ios:: flag, ios:: adjust field)
  The setf is a short for set flag. The flags are long integers, also the part of the objects.
  They are the bit positions, representing something. Here we can set these flags. The flags
  of adjustfield are set with values i.e. left, right, left | right and internal. The description of
  these is as follows.
  Value of flag Meaning   Description
  left   Left-justify   Justifies the output to left side
  right   Right-justify   Justifies the output to right side
  left | right   Center output   Centralized the output
  internal   Insert padding   Places padding between signs or base indicator
  and the first digit of a number. This applies only
  to number values and not to character array.
  Following is the code of a program that shows the effects of these manipulators.
  //This program demonstrate the justified output
  #include <iomanip.h>
  #include <iostream.h>
  void main() 
  int i = -1234;
  cout.setf(ios::left, ios::adjustfield);
  cout << "|" << setw(12) << i << "|" << endl;
  cout.setf(ios::right, ios::adjustfield);
  cout << "|" << setw(12) << i << "|" << endl;
  cout.setf(ios::internal, ios::adjustfield);
  cout << "|" << setw(12) << i << "|" << endl;
  cout.setf(ios::left | ios::right,
  cout << "|" << setw(12) << i << "|" << endl;
  cin >> i ;
  Following is the output of the above program.
  |-1234       |
  |       -1234|
  |-       1234|
  |       -1234|
  We have discussed two types of manipulators for base, the parameter less manipulator in
  which we look for   oct,   dec and   hex. On the other hand, there is a parameterized
  manipulator setbase which takes an integer to set the base. It uses 0 or 10 for decimal, 8
  for octal and 16 for hexadecimal notations. 
  Now we have a generic function setf that sets the flags. We can write something like
  The hex is defined in   ios. It has the same effect. It sets the output stream, in this case
  cout, to use hexadecimal display for integers. So it is the third way to accomplish the
  same task. The use of these ways is a matter of programming style. 
  Showing the base
  Now there should be someway to know which base has the number output by the
  programmer. Suppose we have a number 7ABC, then it be nothing but hexadecimal.
  What will be the nature of 7FF. It is hexadecimal. However, the number 77 (seven seven)
  is a valid number in all of different basis. We have a built-in facility   showbase. It is a
  flag. We can set the showbase for output stream that will manipulate the number before
  displaying it. If you have the   showbase falg on (by default it is off), a number will be
  displayed with special notations. The setf function is used to set the flag for the base field.
  Its syntax is as under:  
  cout.setf(ios::base, ios::basefield); 
  Here base has three values i.e. oct, dec and hex for octal, decimal and hexadecimal
  systems respectively. If the basefield is set to oct (octal), it will display the number with a
  preceding zero. It shows that the number is in octal base. If the basefield is set to   hex
  (hexadecimal), the number will be displayed with a preceding notation 0x. The number
  will be displayed as such if the basefield is set to dec (decimal). If there is a number, say
  77, it will be difficult to say that it is in octal, decimal or hexadecimal base, a valid
  number for all the three systems. However, if we output it with the use of showbase, it
  will be easy to understand in which base the output number is being represented. The
  following example, demonstrates this by showing the number (77) along with the base
  /* This program demonstrate the use of show base. 
  It displays a number in hex, oct and decimal form.
  #include <iostream.h>
  void main()
      int x = 77; 
      cout.setf(ios::oct,ios::basefield); //base is 8
      cout << x << '\n';      //displays number with octal notation  
      cout.setf(ios::hex,ios::basefield);  //base is 16
      cout << x << '\n';      //displays number with hexadecimal notation 
      cout << x << '\n'; 
  Following is the output of the program.
  Scientific Representation
  When the numbers get bigger, it becomes difficult to write and read in digits format. For
  example, one million will be written as 1000000. Similarly hundred million will be
  100000000 (one with eight zeros). How will we display the number which is of 20-digit
  long? For this, we use scientific notation. To do it, a manipulator ios:: scientific can be
  used. If  the flag in setf to the scientific is set, it can be written as 
  cout.setf(ios::scientific, ios::floatfield) ;
  Then the floating point numbers will be displayed in scientific notation. A number in
  scientific is like 1.946000e+009. So we can set the state of output stream to use scientific
  notation for outputting a number. 
  To do the scientific notation off and restore the default notation, we set the flag in setf
  function to fixed (which is a short for fixed point notation). This can be written as
  cout.setf(ios::fixed, ios::floatfield) ;
  Uppercase/Lowercase Control
  Similarly, we have a manipulator ios::uppercase. While using  this manipulator, the e in
  scientific notation is written in uppercase i.e. E. If we are using hexadecimal numbers,
  then the characters of it will be displayed in uppercase letters as A, B, C, D, E and F. 
    We have been using matrices i.e. a two dimensional array. As an exercise, try to
  print out a matrix of three rows and three columns, in such a way that it should be
  nicely formatted. The numbers should be aligned as we write it in a neat and clean
  way on the paper. You can use the symbol | at the start and end of each row as we
  don’t have a so big square bracket to put around three rows. To be more elegant to
  print a matrix, we can use a proper graphic symbol to put square brackets around
  the matrix instead of using | symbol. In the ASCII table, there are many symbols
  that we can use to print in our programs. We have the integer values of these
  symbols in the table. Suppose you have a value 135 of a symbol. Now to print this
  symbol, press the ‘alt’ key and keeping the key pressed enter the integer value i.e.
  135 from the num pad of the key board, release the ‘alt’ key. Now you will see
  that symbol on the screen. For the value 135, the symbol is ç. In programming, we
  can provide this symbol to be printed as a single character in single quotes. For
  this, put a single quote and then enter the symbol in the way stated above and then
  put the single quote. It will be written as ‘ç’. Find out proper symbols from the
  ASCII table that can comprise to put a square bracket around the matrix.  
    Write simple programs to demonstrate the use of different manipulators and
  examine their effects.

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