Lecture 01

What is an Audit?

Audit is an independent examination of financial statements of an entity that enables an auditor to express
an opinion whether the financial statements are prepared (in all material respects) in accordance with an
identified and acceptable financial reporting framework (e.g. international or local accounting standards and
national legislations)
This view of audit is presented by ISA 200 Objective and General Principles Governing an Audit of Financial
The phrases used; “to express the auditor’s opinion” means that the financial statements give a true and fair
view or have been presented fairly in all material respects. 
True and fair presentation means that the financial statement are prepared and presented in accordance with
the requirements of the applicable International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and local

What we can understand as the essential features of an audit from the above definition and explanation are
as under: 
• An auditor involves in examination of financial statements, the auditor is not responsible for the
preparation of the financial statements. 
• The end result of an audit is an opinion to assist the user of the financial statements. Auditing
therefore relies heavily on professional judgment, not merely on the facts. 
• The auditor’s opinion makes reference to “true and fair” or “fair presentations” but “true and fair”
is again a matter of judgment. It is not precisely defined for the auditor. 
• In order to make the user of the auditor’s report able to feel confident in relying on such report, the
auditor should be independent of the entity. Independent essentially means that the auditor has no
significant personal interest in the entity. This allows an objective, professional view to be taken. 

You will note that this is a wide concept of an audit which can be applied to any entity, not just to limited
companies. However, in this course, we are concerned primarily with audits of limited companies (often
known as statutory or external audits). Any other audit applications will be clearly indicated for you in the

Why is there a need for an audit?

The problem that has always existed at the time when the manager reports to the owners is that: whether
the owners will believe the report or not? This is because the reports may: 
a. Contain errors
b. Not disclose fraud
c. Be inadvertently misleading
d. Be deliberately misleading
e. Fail to disclose relevant information
f. Fail to conform to regulations 
The solution to this problem of credibility in reports and accounts lies in appointing an independent person
called an auditor to examine the financial statements and report on his findings.

A further point is that modern companies can be very large with multi-national activities. The preparation
of the accounts of such groups is a very complex operation involving the bringing together and
summarizing of accounts of subsidiaries with differing conventions, legal systems and accounting and 
control systems. The examination of such accounts by independent experts who are trained in the
assessment of financial information is of benefit to those who control and operate such organizations as
well as to owners and outsiders.
Many financial statements must conform to statutory or other requirements. The most notable is that all
company accounts have to conform to the requirements of the Companies Ordinance 1984 but many other 

Lesson 01

bodies (like: Charities, Building Societies, Financial Services business etc) have detailed accounting
requirements as required by the relevant legislations. In addition all accounts should conform to the
requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs). 
It is essential that an audit of financial statements should be carried out to ensure that they conform to these

What is the distinction between auditing and accounting?

Relationship between auditing and accounting 
Auditing and accounting are closely connected but both are separate activities. The directors of a company
are responsible for establishing books of accounts that will accurately record financial information and that
are used for preparing the annual financial statements. It is similarly the responsibility of the directors to
adopt consistent and appropriate accounting policies in order to prepare and present the financial
statements. The financial statements have to comply with national legislative requirements and International
Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs).
Accounting is the process of recording, classifying, summarizing and reporting financial information in a
logical/systematic manner for the purpose of decision making. To provide relevant & reliable information,
accountants must have a thorough understanding of the principles and rules that provide the basis for
preparing the financial statements. 

In auditing the financial statements, the concern is with determining whether the presented financial
statements properly (true and fair) reflect the financial information that occurred during the accounting
period. Since auditors are primarily concerned with the end result of this work i.e. do the financial
statements show a true and fair view? In order to arrive at their conclusion the auditors must have a deep
knowledge and understanding of accounting (including applicable accounting standards) and in practice, the
directors will consult with the auditors as to appropriate accounting policies to follow.

Many financial statement users and members of the general public confuse auditing with accounting. The
confusion results because most auditing is concerned with accounting information, and many auditors have
considerable expertise in accounting matters. The confusion is increased by giving the title “Chartered
Accountant” to individuals performing a major portion of the audit function.

Who can be an auditor?

For appointment as auditor of: 
a) a Public Company or
b) a Private Company which is a subsidiary of a Public Company.
c) a Private Company having paid up capital of three million rupees or more. 

The person must be a Chartered Accountant within the meaning of the Chartered Accountants Ordinance,
For listed companies an auditor must have a satisfactory QCR (quality control review) rating issued by

Fundamentals of Auditing
Auditing – An Introduction 

What is an auditor’s report?

The primary aim of an audit is to enable the auditor to say “these accounts show a true and fair view” or, of
course, to say that “they do not show a true and fair view”. 
At the end of his audit, when he has examined the entity, its record, and its financial statements, the auditor
produces a report addressed to the owners/stake holders in which he expresses his opinion of the truth and
fairness, and sometimes other aspects, of the financial statements.

Standard format of Auditor’s Report as per the Companies Ordinance 1984: 


We have audited the annexed balance sheet of COMPANY NAME as at THE DATE and the related profit
and loss account, cash flow statement and statement of changed in equity together with the notes forming
part thereof, for the year then ended and we state that we have obtained all the information and
explanations which to the best of our knowledge and belief were necessary for the purposes of our audit.

It is the responsibility of the company’s management to establish and maintain a system of internal control
and prepare and present the above said statements in conformity with the approved accounting standards
and the requirements of the Companies Ordinance, 1984. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on
these statements based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the auditing standards as applicable in Pakistan. These
standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the
above said statements are free of any material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis,
evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the above said statements. An audit also includes
assessing the accounting policies and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the
overall presentation of the above said statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for
our opinion and, after due verification, we report that:

a) In our opinion, proper books of accounts have been kept by the company as required by the 
Companies Ordinance, 1984
b)  In our opinion: 
i. The balance sheet and profit and loss account together with the notes thereon have been 
drawn-up in conformity with the Companies Ordinance, 1984, and are in agreement with the
books of account and are further in accordance with accounting policies consistently applied 
ii. The expenditure incurred during the year was for the purpose of the company’s business; and
iii. The business conducted investments made and the expenditure incurred during the year were 
in accordance with the objects of the company.
c) In our opinion and to the best of our information and according to the explanations given to us, the 
balance sheet, profit and loss account, cash flow statement and statement of changes in equity together
with the notes forming part thereof conform with approved accounting standards as applicable in
Pakistan and, give the information required by the Companies Ordinance, 1984, in the manner so
required and respectively give a true and fair view of the state of the company’s affairs as at DATE and
of the profit/loss its cash flows and changes in equity for the year then ended; and 
d) In our opinion Zakat deductible at source under the Zakat and Usher Ordinance, 1980 was deducted by
the company and deposited in the Central Zakat Fund established under Section 7 of that Ordinance. 

Date         Signature
Place        (Name(s) of Auditors)  

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