GENERAL CONTENT: Multiple-Choice Questions

1.    Despite the data glut that marketing managers receive, they frequently complain that they lack _____.
a.              enough information of the right kind
b.              quality information
c.              timely information
d.              accurate and reliable information
e.              valid information
(Answer: a; p. 97; Easy)

2.    An MIS consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, _____, evaluate, and distribute information to marketing decision makers.
a.    test
b.    test market
c.    analyze
d.    critique
e.    assess
(Answer: c; p. 97; Easy)

3.    Your firm has just developed its first successful MIS. It interacts with information users to assess information needs, develop needed information, _____ the marketing information, and help managers use it in their decision making.
a.    distribute
b.    collect
c.    retrieve
d.    store
e.    validate
(Answer: a; p. 97; Challenging)

4.    The marketing information system is not limited to use by the company it serves. It may also provide information to _____.
a.    the government
b.    external partners
c.    various publics
d.    competitors
e.    none of the above
(Answer: b; p. 97; Moderate)

5.    Marketers must weigh carefully the costs of additional information against the _____ resulting from it.
a.    uses
b.    benefits
c.    knowledge
d.    rewards
e.    cost
(Answer: b; p. 98; Easy)

6.    Four common sources of internal data include the accounting department, operations, the sales force, and the _____.
a.    owners
b.    stockholders
c.    marketing department
d.    custodians
e.    quality control department
(Answer: c; p. 99; Moderate)

7.    Marketing information from this type of database usually can be accessed more quickly and cheaply than other information sources. Which one is it?
a.    External.
b.    MDSS.
c.    EIS.
d.    Internal.
e.    Field representatives.
(Answer: d; p. 99; Easy)

8.    This systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about competitors and developments in the marketing environment is very useful. What is it called?
a.              Marketing data.
b.              Marketing intelligence.
c.              Web Master.
d.              Sales and sales management.
e.              Secondary data.
(Answer: b; p. 99; Moderate)

9.    Which of the following was not mentioned in your textbook as a source of marketing intelligence?
a.              Suppliers.
b.              Resellers.
c.              Key customers.
d.              Your company reports.
e.              Sales force.
(Answer: d; p. 101; Easy)

10.          Which of the following was not mentioned in your textbook as a source of marketing intelligence?
a.              Competitors’ garbage.
b.              Buying competitors’ products.
c.              Monitoring competitors’ sales.
d.              Checking for new goodwill.
e.              Purchasing agents.
(Answer: d; p. 101; Moderate)

11.          Your competitor may reveal intelligence information through which of these sources of information?
a.              Annual reports.
b.              Trade show exhibits.
c.              Web pages.
d.              Press releases.
e.              All of the above.
(Answer: e; p. 101; Easy)

12.          In today’s information age, companies are leaving a paper trail of information _____.
a.              in the wastebasket
b.              online
c.              in annual reports
d.              with government agencies
e.              that is inaccessible
(Answer: b; p. 101; Moderate)

13.          To combat marketing intelligence by competitors, Unilever Corporation is now providing _____ to employees.
a.              intelligence training
b.              privacy blocks
c.              protection
d.              less information
e.              none of the above
(Answer: a; p. 102; Moderate)

14.          Which of the steps in the marketing research process has been left out: defining the problems and research objectives, implementing the research plan, and interpreting and reporting the findings?
a.              Developing the research budget.
b.              Choosing the research agency.
c.              Choosing the research method.
d.              Developing the research plan.
e.              Comparing and contrasting primary and secondary data.
(Answer: d; p. 102; Moderate)

15.          Your colleague is confused about using the marketing research process. He seems to be having problems with _____, which is often the hardest step to take.
a.              defining the problem
b.              defining the research objectives
c.              defining the problem and research objectives
d.              researching a research agency to help
e.              C and D
(Answer: c; p. 102; Moderate)

16.          The objective of _____ research is to gather preliminary information that will help define the problem and suggest hypotheses.
a.              descriptive
b.              exploratory
c.              causal
d.              corrective
e.              descriptive and exploratory
(Answer: b; p. 103; Easy)

17.          It is important to note that research objectives must be translated into specific _____.
a.              marketing goals
b.              information needs
c.              dollar amounts
d.              results that justify the means
e.              time allotments
(Answer: b; p. 103; Easy)

18.          The research plan outlines sources of existing data and spells out the specific research approaches, contact methods, _____, and instruments that researchers will use to gather new data.
a.              personnel
b.              sampling plans
c.              budget requirements
d.              all of the above
e.              none of the above
(Answer: b; p. 103; Moderate)

19.          The way to begin marketing research is to gather secondary data, which consists of information _____.
a.              that already exists somewhere
b.              that does not currently exist in an organized form
c.              that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose
d.              used by competition
e.              that the researcher can obtain through surveys and observation
(Answer: c; p. 103; Easy)

20.          How would you describe the primary data being used by your firm?
a.              Collected for the specific purpose at hand.
b.              Original information.
c.              First-time information.
d.              Fresh and perhaps more reliable than secondary data.
e.              All of the above.
(Answer: e; p. 105; Easy)

21.          Which form of data can usually be obtained more quickly and at a lower cost?
a.              Primary.
b.              Census.
c.              Secondary.
d.              Syndicated.
e.              Tertiary.
(Answer: c; p. 105; Moderate)

22.          Your assistant wants to use secondary data exclusively for the current research project. You advise him that the use of secondary data has some potential problems. Which of the following is not one of them?
a.              It may not exist.
b.              All of the needed data is rarely available.
c.              It may not be useable.
d.              It is generally more expensive when purchased from the government.
e.              You do not know why it was originally collected.
(Answer: d; p. 105; Challenging)

23.          Primary data must be relevant, current, unbiased, and _____.
a.              complete
b.              accurate
c.              inexpensive
d.              collected before secondary data
e.              valid
(Answer: b; p. 105; Moderate)

24.          Which method of research can obtain information that people are unwilling or unable to provide?
a.              Observation.
b.              Focus groups.
c.              Personal interviews.
d.              Fax surveys.
e.              Questionnaires.
(Answer: a; p. 106; Easy)

25.          Survey research, called the backbone of primary research, is the most widely used method for primary data collection and is best suited for gathering _____ information.
a.              personal
b.              preference
c.              attitude
d.              descriptive
e.              exploratory
(Answer: d; p. 107; Moderate)

26.          Fredia Pellerano has just discovered the major advantage of survey research. She reports to her supervisor that it is _____.
a.              flexibility
b.              cost effectiveness
c.              quickness to administer
d.              understandability
e.              simplicity
(Answer: a; p. 107; Moderate)

27.          Experimental research is best suited for gathering _____ information.
a.              unknown
b.              causal
c.              complicated
d.              interactive
e.              descriptive
(Answer: b; p. 107; Challenging)

28.          One of the following is not a current survey research method. It is contact by _____.
a.              online use
b.              mail
c.              telephone
d.              fax
e.              none of the above
(Answer: d; p. 107; Easy)

29.          All of the following are disadvantages of telephone interviewing except one. Which one?
a.              Higher cost than mail questionnaires
b.              Introduces interviewer bias
c.              Under time pressures some interviewers might cheat
d.              Interviewers tend to interpret answers similarly
e.              A and C
(Answer: d; p. 108; Challenging)
Currently, you find yourself involved in marketing research. The form you are using is flexible, allows explanation of difficult questions, and lends itself to showing products and advertisements. What is this form of research?
a.              Personal interviewing.
b.              Online interviewing.
c.              Vision phone interviewing.
d.              Mall intercepts.
e.              None of the above.
(Answer: a; p. 108; Easy)

31.          Which of the following is not an advantage of Web research?
a.              Speed.
b.              Low costs.
c.              Instantaneous results.
d.              All of the above.
e.              A and C
(Answer: e; p. 109; Easy)

32.          DelRay Pools and Spas is collecting marketing data through online (Internet) marketing research. Management will have the choice of using Internet surveys, experiments, or _____.
a.    online focus groups
b.    individual interviewing
c.    hit counting
d.    questionnaire responses
e.    observations
(Answer: a; p. 109; Challenging)

33.          Judy Hammerschmidt regularly conducts online marketing research at work. She has found that it has several advantages over traditional methods. Which of these is not an advantage?
a.              Respondents tend to be more honest.
b.              It is more cost efficient.
c.              Report generation turnaround time is much quicker.
d.              There is greater personal interaction.
e.              Respondents cannot remain anonymous.
(Answer: d; p. 109; Challenging)

34.          Marketing researchers usually draw conclusions about large groups of consumers by studying a small _____ of the total consumer population.
a.              group
b.              sample
c.              population
d.              target group
e.              audience
(Answer: b; p. 110; Easy)
35.          Why would In The Mood Music Distributors choose a sampling of its customers to research rather than all 1,500 of them?
a.              Researching all of them is too time-consuming.
b.              Researching all of them can be too expensive.
c.              The sample can fairly represent the entire population.
d.              The customers may all be similar.
e.              All of the above.
(Answer: d; p. 110; Moderate)

36.          Sampling requires the answers to three questions. Choose the inappropriate one.
a.              Who is to be sampled (what sampling unit)?
b.              How many people should be surveyed (what sample size)?
c.              Why should they be sampled (justification)?
d.              How should the people be chosen (what sampling method)?
e.              None of the above.
(Answer: c; p. 110; Challenging)

37.          The backbone of marketing research, or the most common instrument used, is the _____.
a.              mechanical device
b.              live interviewer
c.              questionnaire
d.              teleinterviewer
e.              Internet
(Answer: c; p. 110; Easy)

38.          In creating research questionnaires, which of the following is good advice for Mark Hammel, research specialist at New Wave Data, to follow?
a.              Use care in the wording and ordering of questions.
b.              Questions do not have to be arranged in a logical order.
c.              Ask difficult questions in the beginning to “weed out” uninterested respondents.
d.              Ask personal questions in the middle of the instrument.
e.              Avoid eye contact as it may confuse the respondents.
(Answer: a; p. 111; Moderate)

39.          Which of the following was not mentioned in your text as a common mechanical instrument used to conduct market research?
a.              Supermarket scanners.
b.              People meters.
c.              Galvanometers and eye cameras.
d.              Telephones.
e.    e.               B and C
(Answer: d; p. 111; Moderate)

40.          At this point in your marketing research project, Mr. Barnes comments that the _____ phase is generally the most expensive and the most subject to error.
a.              exploratory research
b.              hypothesis
c.              data collection
d.              interpreting and reporting the findings
e.              data validation
(Answer; c; p. 113; Challenging)

41.          AMF Research Group must guard against problems during the implementation phase of marketing research for its clients. Typically, management will not encounter which of these problems?
a.              Contacting respondents.
b.              Respondents who refuse to cooperate or give biased answers.
c.              Interviewers who make mistakes or take shortcuts.
d.              Interpreting and reporting the findings.
e.              Primary data that conflict with secondary data.
(Answer: d; p. 112; Challenging)

42.          Researchers interpret and report findings to their managers. What might be a typical problem the researcher might encounter when discussing the findings?
a.              Managers may be biased.
b.              Managers may accept results that support their preconceived notions.
c.              Managers may interpret the findings differently.
d.              Managers may not believe the findings.
e.              All of the above.
(Answer: e; p. 113; Easy)

43.          Analytical models help analyze marketing information collected from research. These models can help answer _____ and _____ questions.
a.              short; simple
b.              what if; which is best
c.              relevant; current
d.              advanced; difficult
e.              none of the above
(Answer: b; p. 113; Challenging)

44.          What is the purpose of a data warehouse?
a.              To gather information.
b.              To integrate information a company already has.
c.              To interpret data.
d.              To analyze data.
e.              To discard old data.
(Answer: b; p. 114; Moderate)

45.          Tommy Baker is in charge of customer relationship management for American Pie Nostalgia. As a result of his effort in this area, his firm enjoys all of the following except _____.
a.              providing higher levels of customer service
b.              developing deeper customer relationships
c.              creating offers tailored to specific customer requirements
d.              understanding competition better
e.              understanding how to better build the marketing mix
(Answer: d; p. 114; Moderate)

46.          Hiro Chan knows that when CRM works well at his company, the benefits far outweigh the _____ and _____.
a.              time; costs
b.              time; risks
c.              efforts; costs
d.              costs; risks
e.              efforts; risks
(Answer: d; p. 115; Moderate)

47.          Siebel Systems claims that firms using its CRM software report an average of _____ percent increase in revenues and _____ percent increase in customer loyalty and staff efficiency.
a.              14; 16
b.              15; 18
c.              16; 20
d.              16; 21
e.              20; 30
(Answer: d; p. 115; Challenging)

48.          Marketing information has no value until it is used to _____.
a.              satisfy company objectives
b.              make better marketing decisions
c.              make management’s job easier
d.              please stockholders
e.              please customers
(Answer: b; p. 115; Easy)

49.          This source of marketing information provides ready access to research information, stored reports, shared work documents, contact information for employees and other stakeholders, and more. What do we call this?
a.              A intranet.
b.              An extranet.
c.              The Internet.
d.              An internal database.
e.              Marketing intelligence.
(Answer: a; p. 115; Moderate)
50.          For conservative small businesses and not-for-profit organizations, good marketing information may be collected by simple _____.
a.              purchase
b.              observation
c.              questioning
d.              surveying
e.              focus groups
(Answer: b; p. 117; Easy)

51.          When managers use small convenience samples such as asking customers what they think or inviting a small group out to lunch to get reactions, they are using _____.
a.              informal surveys
b.              experiments
c.              observation
d.              focus groups
e.              marketing intelligence
(Answer: a; p. 117; Moderate)

52.          Small organizations can obtain most of this type of data available to large businesses with minimal effort. What type is it?
a.              Census.
b.              The Internet.
c.              Secondary.
d.              Primary.
e.              Business.
(Answer: c; p. 117; Moderate)

53.          You have been asked to locate secondary data for current research needs. Which of the following is not a common source for this type of research?
a.              The business section at the local library.
b.              The U.S. Small Business Administration.
c.              The Internet.
d.              INS records.
e.              The local Chamber of Commerce.
(Answer: d; p. 117; Easy)

54.          A common problem in international marketing research is the availability of _____.
a.              primary data
b.              research specialists
c.              secondary data
d.              intelligence limitations
e.              consumers across cultures to answer surveys
(Answer: c; p. 118; Challenging)

55.          In general, domestic researchers deal with fairly homogeneous markets. Foreign markets present the challenges of varying levels of economic development, cultures and customs, and _____.
a.              import regulations
b.              buying patterns
c.              dislike of American goods
d.              language barriers
e.              social perceptions
(Answer: b; p. 118; Moderate)

56.          Because of the scarcity of good secondary data, international researchers often must collect their own primary data. An initial problem with this collection is finding and developing good _____.
a.              representative samples
b.              research firms
c.              rapport with nationals
d.              relations with channel members
e.              communication methods
(Answer: a; p. 118; Moderate)

57.          What do many researchers encounter when conducting market research in foreign countries?
a.              Some countries have few telephones that limit access to respondents.
b.              Some countries have poor mail services.
c.              Some countries have poor roads that limit personal contacts.
d.              Some foreign cultures may not understand the value of marketing data.
e.              All of the above.
(Answer: e; p. 118; Easy)

58.          Cultural differences, especially involving language, can add to research costs in foreign markets and can increase the _____.
a.              foreign trade
b.              risks of error
c.              likelihood of not finding a translator
d.              likelihood that a smaller sample could be used
e.              none of the above
(Answer: b; p. 119; Moderate)

59.          A common problem researchers find when going international is that consumers vary in their _____ marketing research.
a.              understanding of
b.              beliefs in
c.              attitudes toward
d.              appreciation of
e.              any of the above
(Answer: e; p. 119; Easy)
60.          Even when respondents in other countries are willing to respond to research questions, they may not be able to because of _____.
a.              high functional illiteracy rates
b.              language barriers
c.              lack of availability
d.              limitations imposed by government
e.              B and D
(Answer: a; p. 119; Easy)

61.          Anna Gregory just completed reading a marketing research report about the top 25 countries that purchase American products. What might the report say about international research with these countries?
a.              It is on the decrease due to high costs.
b.              The costs are higher than the benefits.
c.              There is a lack of qualified research personnel.
d.              There is a growth in international research, and the costs of not doing it are high.
e.              Their interpretations of American quality are about the same.
(Answer: d; p. 119; Moderate)

62.          Choose the statement that is not a typical consumer reaction to intrusion on consumer privacy.
a.              Sophisticated researchers probe our deepest feelings.
b.              Marketers use this information to manipulate our buying.
c.              Marketers build huge databases full of personal information.
d.              Marketers make too many products and services available—it’s confusing.
e.              None of the above.
(Answer: d; p. 119; Easy)

63.          Your text points out that _____ Americans worry that companies have too much of consumers’ personal information and that _____ Americans feel their privacy is compromised if that information is used to sell products.
a.              fewer than half of; fewer than half of
b.              all; fewer than half of
c.              fewer than half of; all
d.              some; no
e.              almost three-fourths of; about three-fourths of
(Answer: e; p. 121; Moderate)

64.          It has been shown that consumers will gladly provide research information when researchers provide _____.
a.              coupons
b.              money
c.              value for the exchange
d.              prizes
e.              any of the above
(Answer: c; p. 122; Challenging)
65.          The best approach for researchers to take to guard consumer privacy includes all of the following except which one?
a.              Ask only for the information needed.
b.              Use information responsibly to provide value.
c.              Avoid sharing information without the customer’s permission.
d.              Sell the information only when it is worth it.
              e.              Fully explain to the respondents how the information will be used.
(Answer: d; p. 122; Easy)

66.          Some companies often use study results as claims in their _____.
a.              advertising
b.              promotion
c.              A and B
d.              annual reports
e.              all of the above
(Answer: c; p. 122; Easy)

67.          Many research studies appear to be little more than vehicles for _____.
a.              gathering names for resale
b.              pitching the sponsor’s products
c.              building company image
d.              tearing down competition
e.              training future salespeople to work with people face-to-face
(Answer: b; p. 122; Moderate)

68.          Recognizing that surveys can be abused, several research associations have developed _____ and _____.
a.              research conduct; standards of ethics
b.              codes of research ethics; standards of conduct
c.              safeguards; public policy
d.              research ethics; safeguards
e.              stiff fines; punishments for abusers
(Answer: b; p. 123; Challenging)

69.              Which of the following statements is not true regarding information collected by marketers?
a.              Managers lack information of the right kind.
b.              Most managers do not need more information.
c.              Most managers need better information.
d.              Many managers are burdened by data overload.
e.              Managers have the right information and they have enough of it.
(Answer: e; p. 97; Moderate)

70.              The marketing information system can serve _____.
a.              the company’s marketing managers
b.              suppliers
c.              resellers
d.              marketing services agencies
e.              all of the above
(Answer: e; p. 97; Easy)

71.              Which of the following statements regarding marketing intelligence is(are) true?
a.              Marketing intelligence is privately held information.
b.              Much intelligence is difficult or impossible to collect.
c.              All marketing intelligence is free.
d.              Marketing intelligence is publicly available information.
e.              B and D
(Answer: d; p. 99; Moderate)

72.              Managers often start with _____ research and later follow with _____ research.
a.              exploratory; descriptive
b.              exploratory; causal
c.              descriptive; causal
d.              A and B
e.              all of the above
(Answer: d; p. 103; Challenging)

73.              Secondary data are _____.
a.              collected mostly via surveys
b.              expensive to obtain
c.              sometimes not reliable
d.              never purchased from outside suppliers
e.              always necessary to support or refute the primary data collected
(Answer: c; p. 105; Moderate)

74.              Secondary data must be _____.
a.              relevant
b.              accurate
c.              current
d.              impartial
e.              all of the above
(Answer: e; p. 105; Easy)

75.              Ethnographic research _____.
a.              comes from traditional focus groups
b.              provides greater insights into buying behavior
c.              provides secondary data
d.              is most popular in the service sector
e.              provides data to marketers when observation is impossible
(Answer: b; p. 106; Moderate)


76.              In the last decade, Coach has ignored marketing research when designing new bags.
(Answer: True; p. 96; Easy)

77.              Many analysts believe that Coach’s exhaustive market research has failed to pay off.
(Answer: True; p. 96; Easy)

78.              Today, marketing managers are viewing research information not only as an input for making internal decisions but also as an input for external partners.
(Answer: True; p. 97; Moderate)

79.              Most marketers today believe they still lack a sufficient quantity of research data to make high-quality decisions.
(Answer: False; p. 97; Easy)

80.              An effective MIS assesses information needs, develops needed information, and distributes the information to help managers use it in decision making.
(Answer: True; p. 98; Moderate)

81.              Too much information can be as harmful as too little.
(Answer: True; p. 98; Easy)

82.              When you glean information from your company’s accounting and sales records stored in the computer, you are developing an internal database.
(Answer: True; p. 99; Moderate)

83.              You have just extracted sales and cost data used by the accounting department for preparing financial statements. Most likely, this information should be complete and in useable form to build an internal marketing database.
(Answer: False; p. 99; Challenging)

84.              It is important to note that data age quickly, and keeping the database current requires a major effort.
(Answer: True; p. 99; Easy)

85.              After carefully questioning your major suppliers and resellers, you ascertain they do not form important sources of intelligence information for marketing decision making.
(Answer: False; p. 101; Challenging)

86.              Your manager asked you to go through three of your competitors’ garbage bins to gather marketing intelligence from their discarded paperwork. One of them caught you in the act and has summoned you to court. The judge will most likely rule this to be an illegal activity and fine you and your company.
(Answer: False; p. 101; Challenging)

87.              Good sources of marketing intelligence information include competitors’ annual reports, business publications, trade show exhibits, press releases, advertisements, and Web pages.
(Answer: True; p. 101; Moderate)

88.              Your firm faces determined marketing intelligence efforts by competitors. You take the typical response by “letting it ride.”
(Answer: False; p. 101; Easy)

89.              Marketing research is conducted to systematically design, collect, and report data directly relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the organization.
(Answer: False; p. 102; Moderate)

90.              The research and development department just released a report and commented that “Defining the problem and research objectives is often the hardest step in the research process.”
(Answer: True; p. 102; Easy)

91.              Once the research problems and objectives have been defined, researchers must determine the exact information needed and present it to management.
(Answer: False; p. 102; Challenging)

92.              After conducting formal marketing research for your department, you make an oral presentation with notes to management. You are following normal marketing research steps.
(Answer: False; p. 102; Moderate)

93.              Marketing researchers can conduct their own searches of secondary data sources today by using commercial secondary data sources.
(Answer: True; p. 103; Easy)

94.              Secondary data provide good starting points and often help to define problems and research objectives, though most companies must also collect primary data.
(Answer: True; p. 105; Moderate)
95.              ABC Interior Designs wants to collect research data through mechanical observation. The three typical methods are video cameras, checkout scanners, and Internet cookies.
(Answer: False; p. 111; Challenging)

96.              A single-source data system uses huge consumer panels and electronically monitors survey respondents’ purchases and exposure to various marketing activities.
(Answer: True; p. 107; Moderate)

97.              Focus groups use no interviewer to bias the answers, may produce more honest answers, and can be used to collect large amounts of data at a low cost per respondent.
(Answer: False; p. 108; Moderate)

98.              You have decided upon a method of collecting research data with flexible interviewing, whereby trained interviewers can explain difficult questions and explore issues as the situation requires. Audio-visual aids can also be used. We refer to this as focus group interviewing.
(Answer: False; p. 108; Moderate)

99.              Parley Trade Shows wants to use the latest technology in marketing research. You are told this method is online (Internet) marketing research.
(Answer: True; p. 109; Easy)

100.              Ideally, a sample should be representative so that the researcher can make accurate estimates of the thoughts and behaviors of the larger population.
(Answer: True; p. 110; Easy)

101.              You want to calculate confidence limits for sampling error. It would be best to use nonprobability samples.
(Answer: False; p. 110; Challenging)

102.              Marketers all agree that questionnaires are the most common research instrument.
(Answer: True; p. 111; Easy)

103.              The researcher interprets findings, draws conclusions, and reports those conclusions to management. Ideally, we should present important findings that are useful to the major decisions faced by management to prevent overwhelming them.
(Answer: True; p. 113; Moderate)

104.              You have just identified the “touch points” of the 400 best customers in your database. At this point, you want to manage detailed information about each of them to maximize customer loyalty. You should use customer relationship management (CRM).
(Answer: True; p. 113; Challenging)

105.              Buy-It-Lower Stores has gained many benefits from CRM. If this company is typical, it will realize how to provide higher levels of customer service and develop deeper customer relationships. Management can also pinpoint low-value customers and begin to eliminate them while tailoring offers to specific customers.
(Answer: False; p. 114; Challenging)


106.              Discuss the functions of a marketing information system (MIS).

A typical MIS consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers. First, it interacts with information users to assess information needs. Next, it develops needed information from internal company databases, marketing intelligence activities, and marketing research. Then it helps users to analyze information to put it in the right form for making marketing decisions and managing customer relationships. Finally, the MIS distributes the marketing information and helps managers use it in their decision making.
(p. 97; Moderate)

107.              Marketers can obtain needed information from internal data, marketing intelligence, and marketing research. Explain some common sources for each of these.

              Internal databases are built upon statements and records from the accounting department. Operations reports on production-related issues. Sales and marketing provide data on resellers, competitors, buyer behavior, and the industry. These are cheaper sources that are easy to access. Marketing intelligence is a collection and analysis of publicly available data about competitors and developments in the industry. It can come from quizzing employees, studying their ads and annual reports, and analyzing their products. Marketers often need formal studies of specific situations where they seek sources of secondary and primary data to form decisions. The processes and methods used to collect the data should fit the purpose and budget of the researching firm.
(p. 99; Moderate)

108.              Describe the basic marketing research process.

              The marketing research process involves: defining the problem and research objectives, developing the plan, implementing the plan, and interpreting and reporting the findings. Managers must know what is wrong and the causes in defining the problem. Objectives must be reached: exploratory, descriptive, and causal research. Next, the information needed and a plan for gathering and presenting is made. Then, secondary and primary data must be collected to compile and analyze. The important information must be presented to management for decision making.
(p. 102; Moderate)
109.              Provide the advantages/benefits of each of the contact methods.

              Mail questionnaires can be used to collect large amounts of information at a low cost per respondent. Respondents may give more honest answers to more questions than to an unknown interviewer in person or on the phone. Also, no interviewer is involved to bias the answers. Telephone interviewing is one of the best methods for gathering information quickly and provides great flexibility. Interviewers can explain difficult questions, skip questions, or probe on other questions. Rates of response tend to be higher than mail methods. Personal and group interviewing allow interviewers to guide respondents and explore issues as they evolve, and they are flexible. Visual aids can be used, products can be demonstrated, and reactions and behaviors can be observed. Computer-assisted interviewing aids in eliminating interviewer bias. Online methods allow the person to be more honest, the costs are greatly reduced, and reports come back faster.
(p. 107; Challenging)

110.              What would a researcher need to know about drawing conclusions about large groups of consumers by studying a small sample of the total population?

              First, it is imperative to determine who is to be surveyed. Next, we must determine the sample size by deciding how many people need to be surveyed. Third, the sampling procedure should be chosen to know how the respondents should be chosen. The correct combination of secondary and primary data should be researched to provide reliable information.
(p. 110; Easy)

111.              How can a company overcome the problem of gathering internal data for research purposes when it is usually scattered widely across the organization?

              Many companies are using customer relationship management (CRM). CRM offers the benefits of managing detailed information about individual customers and carefully managing customer “touch points” in order to maximize customer loyalty. By using sophisticated software and analytical tools, information about customers can be integrated from all sources and analyzed in depth, and the results can be applied to build stronger customer relationships. CRM integrates everything that a company’s sales, service, and marketing teams know about individual customers to provide a 360-degree view of the customer relationship.
(p. 113; Challenging)

112.              Explain the common problems that international marketing researchers encounter.

              International researchers deal with less homogeneous markets in and among countries. The markets often vary greatly in their levels of economic development, their cultures and customers, and their buying patterns. Good secondary data are difficult to find in many foreign markets. More time and expense is involved in gathering primary data. In addition, choosing representative samples and finding methods of contacting them can be a formidable task. Cultural and language differences can present obstacles in interpreting the data and drawing realistic conclusions. Consumers’ attitudes in other countries may hinder the process of collection.
(p. 118; Challenging)

113.              Compare and contrast closed-end questions and open-end questions for gathering data.

Closed-end questions make it easier for respondents to choose among relevant answers. They are also easier for the researcher to interpret and tabulate. Open-end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words and as such do not limit their choices.
(p. 111; Easy)

114.              Explain the importance of information to the company and its understanding of the marketplace.

The marketing process starts with a complete understanding of the marketplace and consumer needs and wants. Thus, the company needs sound information in order to produce superior value and satisfaction for consumers. The company also requires information on competitors, resellers, and other actors and forces in the marketplace. Increasingly, marketers are viewing information not only as an input for making better decisions but also as an important strategic asset and marketing tool.
(p. 124; Moderate)

115.              Discuss the special issues some marketing researchers face, including public policy and ethics issues.

Some marketers face special marketing research situations, such as those conducting research in small business, nonprofit, or international situations. Marketing research can be conducted effectively by small businesses and nonprofit organizations with limited budgets. International marketing researchers follow the same steps as domestic researchers but often face more and different problems. All organizations need to respond responsibly to major public policy and ethical issues surrounding marketing research, including issues of intrusions on consumer privacy and misuse of research findings.
(p. 116; Challenging)

APPLICATION CONTENT: Multiple-Choice Questions

116.              You have decided to model your marketing strategy after Coach’s strategy. You recognize that it is time for an extreme makeover. Where do you start?
a.              Being with a price change.
b.              Begin with a package change.
c.              Add new and improved features to your products.
d.              Begin with marketing research.
e.              None of the above.
(Answer: d; p; 96; Moderate)

117.              A good MIS balances the information users would _____ against what they really _____ and what is _____.
a.              need; like; feasible
b.              like; can afford; needed
c.              like to have; need; feasible to offer
d.              need; can afford; useful
e.              use; have to use; available
(Answer: c; p. 98; Challenging)

118.              Harold Younger has found that his MIS at work sometimes cannot provide the information his firm needs. If the reasons are not because it is not available, or cost is not a problem, then what must the reason be?
a.              MIS limitations.
b.              Lack of knowledge of using it.
c.              Faulty equipment.
d.              All of the above.
e.              None of the above.
(Answer: a; p. 98; Moderate)

119.              Diana Dion is currently researching data sources from within her company to make marketing decisions. Diana is making use of _____ databases.
a.              external
b.              current
c.              historical
d.              internal
e.              foreign
(Answer: d; p. 99; Easy)

120.              Your marketing department is attempting to improve strategic decision making, assess and track competitors’ actions, and provide early warning of opportunities and threats. Your department would do well to use _____.
a.              internal databases
b.              external databases
c.              marketing intelligence
d.              the Internet
e.              company reports only
(Answer: c; p. 99; Challenging)

121.              Harvard University is using the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to marketing its programs to minority students. What do we call this?
a.              Promotion.
b.              Self-study.
c.              Marketing research.
d.              Cost-benefit analysis.
e.              Identifying the target market.
(Answer: c; p. 102; Challenging)

122.              Patti Lovelace is making a presentation to the owners of her company. She is trying to convince them to conduct some current marketing research. Which of the following would she NOT emphasize as a benefit or selling point?
a.              Assess market potential and market share.
b.              Understand customer satisfaction and purchase behavior.
c.              Measure the effectiveness of pricing and accounting.
d.              Measure the effectiveness of distribution and promotion activities.
e.              None of the above.
(Answer: c; p. 102; Challenging)

123.              You are to the point of testing hypotheses about decreasing sales in certain markets and their causes. You are involved in what type of research?
a.              Exploratory.
b.              Descriptive.
c.              Causal.
d.              Focus group.
e.              Market.
(Answer: c; p. 103; Easy)

124.              Loft Industries sells roof trusses to contractors and builders and uses observation in its marketing research. Which of the following methods would be best for this firm?
a.              People meters.
b.              Checkout scanners.
c.              Cookies.
d.              Mechanical observation.
e.              Marketing intelligence.
(Answer: d; p. 111; Challenging)
125.              ABC Company has decided to use mail questionnaires to collect large amounts of information. Management recognizes this method has all the following advantages except one. Can you locate it?
a.              Low cost per respondent.
b.              May provide more honest answers.
c.              Has an average response rate.
d.              No interview to bias respondents’ answers.
e.              B and D
(Answer: c; p. 107; Challenging)

126.              Focus group interviewing has become one of the major marketing research tools for getting insight into consumer thoughts and feelings. However, if the sample size is small, it may be difficult to _____.
a.              find a representative sample
b.              generalize from the results
c.              administer the questions
d.              orchestrate cooperation
e.              find enough secondary data to support the findings
(Answer: b; p. 108; Moderate)

127.              Typically, customer information is buried deep in separate databases, plans, and records of many different company functions and departments. To overcome such problems, which of the following could you try?
a.              Customer satisfaction measurement.
b.              More sophisticated software.
c.              Customer relationship management.
d.              Synergetic meetings of the minds.
e.              Avoid marketing intelligence.
(Answer: c; p. 113; Moderate)

128.              As a small business consultant, you recommend to your clients that they use the no-cost method of observation to gather market research. Which of the following are you NOT likely to recommend they do?
a.              Observe vehicle and pedestrian traffic.
b.              Monitor competitors’ advertising from local media.
c.              Evaluate their customer mix—how many and what kind of customers.
d.              Hire additional staff to observe extensively.
e.              A and B
(Answer: d; p. 106; Easy)

129.              Juanita Petino operates a dress shop in a suburban mall. Her research budget is very small, and thus she utilizes low-cost or no-cost methods to gather research data. One method that works very well for her is to change the themes in her local newspaper and radio advertising and watch the result. Juanita is using _____ to gather data for marketing decisions.
a.              informal surveys
b.              experiments
c.              guess work
d.              logic-directed research
e.              causal analysis
(Answer: b; p. 107; Easy)

130.              A recent article in the Wall Street Journal commented on two major public policy and ethical issues in marketing research. What are they?
a.              Child pornography and spam.
b.              Intrusions on consumer privacy and misuse of research findings.
c.              Misuse of research findings and spam.
d.              Selling of personal information to other firms and intrusions on consumer privacy.
e.              Ethnography and the misinterpretation of it.
(Answer: b; p. 119; Challenging)

131.              American Express views privacy as a way to gain _____.
a.              higher customer approval
b.              higher sales
c.              loyalty
d.              a competitive advantage
e.              B and C
(Answer: d; p. 122; Challenging)

132.              For a marketer deciding where to relocate within the city, the research will most likely use _____.
a.              traffic-flow patterns in specific areas
b.              lifestyle characteristics found in the city
c.              past sales data
d.              competitors’ sales data
e.              ways to repackage the marketer’s products
(Answer: a; p. 103; Easy)

133.              Fifty percent of the respondents surveyed preferred diet soft drinks over regular soft drinks. Fifty percent of those preferring diet soft drinks were also smokers; fifty percent of those preferring regular soft drinks were smokers. A researcher might conclude that _____.
a.              Smokers are more weight-conscious than nonsmokers.
b.              There is no correlation between preferring diet soft drinks and being a smoker.
c.              Most nonsmokers will eventually prefer diet soft drinks.
d.              There is too much information but it is the wrong kind.
e.              Manufacturers of diet soft drinks should target smokers.
(Answer: b; p. 113; Challenging)

134.              You want to find out whether Americans between 21 and 40 years of age tend to vote democratic and whether Americans between 41 and 70 tend to vote republican. You will most likely use _____ to collect your data.
a.              observation
b.              mechanical devices
c.              a sample
d.              people meters
e.              checkout scanners
(Answer: c; p. 110; Moderate)

135.              You have decided to use only closed-end questions on your survey. Which of the following questions would not be found on your survey?
a.              Do you like chocolate?
b.              What is your gender?
c.              Do you work full- or part-time?
d.              Why don’t you like your teacher?
e.              In what month do you plant your garden?
(Answer: d; p. 111; Moderate)

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